名字上的禁忌,在每个国家都有——Banning names . Sorry, you’re not on the list .经济学人翻译

每个国家的历史、文化都不相同。但对一些名字中的用词忌讳好像是全球都有的。无论是发达国家还是落后的地区。

Abdelmadjid Labadi, who lives in Algeria could have chosen an Arabic name for his daughter. But he wanted one that reflected his Berber ethnicity. His choices were limited: Algeria keeps a list of around 300 approved Berber names, a way of holding the minority in check. Mr Labadi wanted none of them. So for almost four years he left his daughter officially nameless, as he fought in court for the name he preferred. In July he finally won and his daughter formally became Tanila, Berber for dove.

住在 Algeria 的 Abdelmadjid Labadi ,本可以为他的女儿取一个阿拉伯名字。但他想要起个能展示他柏柏尔人血统的名字。他的选择是有限的:Algeria有一份大约300个被允许使用的柏柏尔人名字清单,这是控制少数族人的一种方式。但 Labadi 先生不想用其中的任何一个。所以,有将近四年的时间里,他的女儿都没有正式的官方名字,他在法庭为他喜欢的名字而抗争。在七月份,他终于赢了,他的女儿被正式命名为 Tanila ,柏柏尔的格子。

Regimes in the Middle East and north Africa long restricted names as a way of encouraging national unity—usually centred on the majority ethnic group or religion. For example, Turkey banned Kurdish names and non-Turkish suffixes, such as the Armenian “-ian”. Postrevolution Iran banned Western names and balked at pre-Islamic Persian ones. Israeli bureaucrats gave Jewish immigrants from Europe and Muslim countries Hebrew names on arrival. Algeria’s registrars were obliged to ensure that names were “Algerian-sounding”; Morocco said they must sound Moroccan.

中东和北非的政府,长期以来把限制名字作为鼓励国家统一的一种方式——这通常集中于占多数种族或者宗教。例如,土耳其禁止使用库尔德语的名字和非土耳其语的后缀,如亚美尼亚语的 “-ian”。革命后的伊朗,禁止使用西方名字,并对前伊斯兰的波斯名保持谨慎。以色列的官员给来自欧洲和穆斯林国家的犹太人起了希伯来名字。阿尔及利亚的登记人员,有义务区确保名字听起来像阿尔及利亚人的名字;摩尔哥说,他们必须听起来像摩尔哥人。

But this form of nationalism has been receding in much of the region. Officials who guarded against “cultural separatism” now celebrate diversity. Take Tunisia, which ended its ban on foreign names in July. “What people drink or name their children is their private affair,” said Lotfi Zitoun, the minister who took the decision. Turkey officially ditched its policy of Turkifying names in 2003. The constitution passed by Iraq in 2005 ended the Arabisation of minority names. Israel dispensed with Hebraisation in the 1990s, when a wave of Jews from the former Soviet Union arrived.

但是这种形式的民族注意在该地的大部分地区都已经消退。曾经谨慎反对“文化分离”的官员们现在开始庆祝文化的多样性。以突尼斯为例,该国今年七月份结束了今之起外国名字的禁令。做出这一决定的部长Lotfi Zitoun 说道:“人们喝什么,给孩子起什么名字,这是他们的私事。”。2003年,土耳其正式放弃了土耳其名的政策。伊拉克在2005年,通过了宪法,结束了少数民族名字阿拉伯化。以色列在上世纪90年代,当一波来自苏联的犹太人涌入以色列时,废除了希伯来化。

Even today, though, official tolerance is limited. Algerian registrars still grimace at names such as Kahina, a Jewish Berber queen who battled the conquering armies of Islam. A Kurd in Turkey can call his child Serwav, which means warrior, but it is likely to invite government scrutiny. Iran’s ayatollahs have grown more comfortable with ancient Persian names, but they frown upon those of old shahs and kings, which might betray a parent’s monarchist leanings. Not long ago Saudi Arabia banned 51 names. Many were favoured by Shia Muslims, who are a minority in the kingdom. But Linda was on the list, too.

即使在今天,官方的容忍度也是有限的。阿尔及利亚的登记人员,依然对 Kahina等名字冷脸相对,这是一位与伊斯兰征服者作战的犹太柏柏尔女王。土耳其的库尔德人可以叫自己的小孩 Serwav (是战士的意思),但这可能会招来政府的审查。伊朗的阿拉图拉们已经对古老的波斯名字习以为常了,但他们对这些可能会被判父母君王主义的倾向表示不满。不久前,沙特阿拉伯禁用了 51个名字,其中许多受到什叶派穆斯林的青睐,而什叶派穆斯林在沙特王国占少数。但是琳达也在名单上。

Other parts of the world are also restrictive in this way. Until 2017 California prohibited the use of accents in names. An Egyptian parliamentarian once tried to make things simple by banning all foreign names. But he backtracked after being reminded that the widow of Egypt’s longest-serving president, Hosni Mubarak, is called Suzanne.

世界上其它地区也有这样的限制。在2017年之前,加州禁止在名字中使用口音。一位 埃及国会议员,试图通过禁止所有外国名字来简单处理此事。但是,被人提醒埃及在位最长时间的总统 Hosni Mubarak 的遗孀名字叫做 Suzanne 后改口了。

以上译自经济学人,仅供个人学习,如有侵权,请联系删除。

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